effect of uniformly distributed roughness on turbulent skin friction drag at supersonic speeds.

by Frank E. Goddard

Publisher: California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, Calif

Written in English
Published: Pages: 80 Downloads: 58
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  • Skin friction (Aerodynamics),
  • Aerodynamics, Supersonic.

Edition Notes

Skin friction drag is caused by the viscosity of fluids and is developed from laminar drag to turbulent drag as a fluid moves on the surface of an object. Skin friction drag is generally expressed in terms of the Reynolds number, which is the ratio between inertial force and viscous force. Skin friction reduction in a turbulent Taylor-Couette flow resulting from the low-temperature Leidenfrost effect. We calculate the thickness of the vapor layer by relating it to the slip length b. Although the bulk flow is turbulent in nature (Re > Re c = × 10 4), the flow in .   The discrete element method has been widely used and validated for predicting heat transfer and skin friction for rough surfaces composed of sparse, ordered, and deterministic elements. Real gas turbine surface roughness is different from surfaces with sparse, ordered, and deterministic roughness elements.   Since the objective is to study the effect of roughness factor on friction pressure drop, we will again ignore elevation change. Similar to the oil pipeline, the roughness factor, was varied from 1× to Note, for a roughness factor greater than , a higher inlet pressure, a larger diameter or lower flow rate was needed.

When a wing is moving slowly, air flows smoothly around it like honey around a spoon. At higher speeds, however, the flow becomes turbulent. Small disturbances are amplified as the air moves along the wing, growing into turbulence some distance behind the leading edge. Turbulence can make the friction drag . Aerodynamic Effects of Uniform Blowing and Suction on a NACA Airfoil randomly distributed roughness elements: A systematic study on the effect of Quadrio, M. (): Reevaluation of Control Performance for turbulent skin friction drag reduction in terms of energy savings and convenience. 9 th International ERCOFTAC Symposium on. Technologies for reducing hydrodynamic skin-friction drag have a huge potential for energy-savings in applications ranging from propulsion of marine vessels to transporting liquids through pipes. The majority of previous experimental studies using hydrophobic surfaces have successfully shown skin-friction drag reduction in the laminar and transitional flow regimes (typically Reynolds numbers. DCD CFlat plate drag coefficient, CD- 2(Draq)/p eeU. C f Local skin friction coefficient, Cf 2- /0 U2 Cfi Skin friction computed by an inacompressible formula f Flat plate factor defined by Eqn. (49) F,G,H Boundary layer functions defined by Eqna.(22,23,40,42) F"F,FF Stretching factors defined by .

Correlation of Roughness Density Effect on the Turbulent Flow Friction Parameter. By A. P. TRUNEV. The roughness density effect on the mean velocity profile is estimated in the case of 2D and 3D roughness elements. The general correlation for the rough surface friction parameter is proposed. Effects of Spacing and Geometry of Distributed Roughness Elements on a Two-Dimensional Turbulent Boundary Layer by Devin O. Stewart This thesis is a study of the effects of distributed roughness elements on a two-dimensional turbulent boundary layer. Measurements were taken on a total of ten rough wall configurations: four involving Gaussian. effects of distributed roughness on the skin friction of ships A method for calculating boundary layer characteristics and skin friction resistance is presented. It can be used for ships with smooth, rough or partly rough hull surfaces and is based upon the technique of conformal mapping. At low speed, flow in a pipe or over an aircraft is smooth and steady. At higher speeds, flow becomes turbulent—the smooth motion gives way to fluctuating eddies that sap the fluid’s energy and make it more difficult to pump the fluid through the tube or to propel the aircraft through the air. For flowing.

effect of uniformly distributed roughness on turbulent skin friction drag at supersonic speeds. by Frank E. Goddard Download PDF EPUB FB2

An experimental program was carried out in the 18 x inch supersonic wind tunnel of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory at the California Institute of Technology to determine the effect of uniformly distributed sand-grain roughness on the skin friction drag of a body of revolution for the case of a turbulent boundary layer.

This investigation is divided into two parts. Part I deals with the effect of roughness and pressure drop and skin friction, and Part II covers the effect of surface roughness and the turbulent velocity fluctuations, and the correlation between these fluctuations in the direction of the mean flow and those normal to the channel walls.

>The roughness for both investigations was the same, and Author: Ralph Doris Baker. PDF | Skin friction drag coefficients are determined for marine antifouling coatings in pristine condition by use of Constant Temperature Anemometry | Find, read and cite all the research you.

To this point, the topic of roughness effects has centered on the Moody diagram and turbulent pipe flows. However, since roughness can influence the skin friction in a range of internal (e.g., pipes and ducts) and external (e.g., boundary layers) flow types, it is useful to introduce a parameter.“ The Effect of Uniformly Distributed Roughness on Turbulent Skin Friction Drag at Supersonic Speeds,” Journal of the Aerospace Sciences, Cited by: 4.

“Bubble-induced skin-friction drag reduction and the abrupt transition to air-layer drag reduction” in the Journal of Fluid Mechanics with co-authors Eric S. Winkel, Keary A. Lay, Steven L. Ceccio, David R. Dowling & Marc Perlin. Portions of Parts IV and V have been presented in the conference paper “Polymer degradation within a high.

Drag on marine vessels consists of three fundamental parts: skin friction drag, pressure drag and residual drag. Each part contributes to the overall drag of the ship (Bixler & Bhushan, ).

The size of the pressure drag is directly linked to the shape of the underwater hull. The skin friction drag, on the other hand, is caused by the.

Turbulent Drag Reduction by Uniform Blowing ship between skin-friction drag and turbulence statistics by integrating the streamwise. Flow Turbulence Combust () – ies assume regularly distributed roughness arrays (e.g., transverse bars, packed spheres or.

Measurements and Prediction of Friction Drag of Rough Surfaces Despite efforts to understand the roughness effect on drag over marine structures, the lack of the effect of wall roughness on turbulent flows using pipes with uniform sand coating and different sizes.

In this case of homogeneous sand, the roughness effect on the boundary layer. Beyond drag comparisons, the Reynolds number is also useful for analyzing whether a flow will be laminar or turbulent. If a fluid follows smooth, predictable streamlines as it flows, it is called laminar (see Box ).If a flow is full of chaotic swirls and eddies, it is called fact, Osborne Reynolds initially developed the index that now bears his name as a way to predict whether.


Orl¨ u¨2 and P. Schlatter2 1 Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Keio Univ., HiyoshiYokohamaJapan 2 Linne FLOW Centre, KTH Mechanics, Osquars Ba SE 44 Stockholm, Sweden´ [email protected] 1. 10Hakkinen, R. “Measurements of Turbulent Skin Friction on a Flat Plate at Transonic Speeds.” NACA11Blumer, C.

“The Direct Measurement of Skin Friction on a Cone at Supersonic Sp eed. Masters Thesis, University of Minnesota, November, 12Wolff, J.

“An Evaluation of Equipment to Measure Directly the Skin. The effect of uniformly distributed roughness on turbulent skin friction drag at supersonic speeds. the compressibility effect is indirect and the skin friction drag is a function only of the.

Response of supersonic turbulent boundary layers to local and global mechanical distortions - Volume - ISAAC W. EKOTO, RODNEY D. BOWERSOX, THOMAS BEUTNER, LARRY GOSS. Goddard, “Effect of uniformly distributed roughness on turbulent skin-friction drag at supersonic speeds,” J.

Aerospace Sci., 26, No. 1, 1 (). Google. For this reason the effects of surface roughness on the airfoil drag has also been investigated in this study. The viscous friction drag is directly related to the skin friction coefficient, c f, defined as τw /(ρ∞U∞2 /2) where τw is the shear stress at the airfoil surface and ρ∞.

wings at supersonic speeds. Results shorn that the roughness height required to ensure fully turbulent flow up to the (M = l-4 to 2-O P osition of roughness increases rapidly with Mach number and that the roughness drag penalties may be significant.

Goddard, F. E., Jr.: Effect of uniformly distributed roughness on turbulent skin-friction drag at supersonic speeds. In the past decades of years, distributed roughness effects on transition onsets, skin friction and aeroheating have been studied in both experiments and numerical simulations.

It is clear that distributed roughness causes transition in advance and enhances skin friction or turbulent heating in most cases.

Goddard, “ Effect of uniformly distributed roughness on turbulent skin-friction drag at supersonic speeds,” J. Aerosp. Sci. 26 (1), 1– 24 ().Google Scholar. The results of an experimental investigation of the effect of the streamwise pressure gradient in a turbulent boundary layer on the permissible height of the surface roughness of bodies in an incompressible fluid flow are presented.

The permissible roughness Reynolds number for which the characteristics of the turbulent boundary layer remain the same as in the case of flow past a smooth. In the last three decades the effect of highly ordered and direc-tional surface roughness on turbulent boundary layers has at-tracted considerable attention.

One very interesting example of such a surface is riblet-type roughness, which has been exten-sively studied due to its ability to reduce skin friction. increase in skin friction resulting from the roughness. For example, in a turbulent boundary layer, +U is a function of the skin-friction coefficients C f for the smooth and rough walls at the same displacement thickness Reynolds number Re given as 33 +U = 2 C f S − 2 C f R.

14 The roughness function depends on both the nature of the. The effect of uniformly distributed roughness on turbulent skin friction drag at supersonic speeds: Ae: Liepmann: Hartwig, Frederic William: Development and application of a technique for steady state aerodynamic heat transfer measurements: Ae: Lees: Kubota, Toshi: Investigation of flow around simple bodies in hypersonic flow: Ae: Lees.

Uniformly distributed roughness on a surface affects the turbulent boundary layer according to the roughness height relative to the boundary layer thickness. No increase in skin friction drag occurs for a surface with a turbulent boundary layer if the roughness height is less than the usual laminar sublayer thickness.

A discrete element model for turbulent flow over two-dimensional rib-type roughness is developed and validated. Surface roughness blockage effects and form drag are included as a constituent part of the differential equations. Separation and reattachment of the flow over rib roughness are identified as the dominant flow phenomena, and models are developed which incorporate the separated region.

For a blufi body, Form drag >> Friction drag, therefore CD constant \ CP" (within a regime). For a streamlined body: CD(R) = Cf(R)+CP U friction Form drag (CP) not a function of Reynold’s number within a regime.

Perform an experiment with a smooth model at Rm(Rm drag of the model) 2. The general behaviour of turbulent pipe flow in the presence of surface roughness is well established. For a given surface finish, the roughness is often described in terms with the velocity, implying that form drag on the roughness elements is the principal In terms of the skin friction, we expect that.

skin–friction drag and propelling the ship forward is immensely costly. 80%–90% of the total Up to drag experienced by a large bulk carrier could be due to turbulent skin-friction drag[5,6].

The issue of skin-friction drag on a ship hull is exacerbated by the existence of surface roughness. A skin-friction law suitable for use in two-dimensional turbulent bN3 ary-layer calculations has been constructed on the basm of the work of and spalaing and c& The law should be valid.

for Mach numbers up to and slightly exceedmg unity, and. applies to adiabatic smooth walls. The skin-frxtlon law 1s specxfied by:. The existing two-layer model realistically predicted the velocity shift on a log-law plot for the fully rough turbulent boundary layer.

The two-layer model results also showed the effect of roughness is to enhance the level of turbulence kinetic energy and Reynolds shear stress compared to .Skin Friction – Friction Drag Source: License: CC BY-SA As was written, when a fluid flows over a stationary surface, e.g.

the flat plate, the bed of a river, or the wall of a pipe, the fluid touching the surface is brought to rest by the shear stress to at the wall. The region in which flow adjusts from zero velocity at the wall to a maximum in the main stream of the flow.

The effect of roughness elements on wind erosion: The importance of surface shear stress distribution An evaluation of theories for predicting turbulent skin friction andheat transfer on flat plates at supersonic and hypersonic Mach numbers Determination of the heat transfer properties of a turbulent boundary layer in the case of.